Agendas, PowerPoints, Attendees


2021 GAP Convenings


Three regional convenings hosted by the ABA Center on Children and the Law, Children's Defense Fund, and Generations United, with support from Casey Family Programs, were held to explore the implementation of the Title IV-E Guardianship Assistance Program (GAP).


State, territory and tribal teams attended the virtual half-day convenings aimed at facilitating conversations among jurisdictions that have a GAP program to better understand promising practices and ongoing implementation strengths and challenges. The convenings provided jurisdictions the opportunity to engage in peer to peer discussions and learn from each other about successful GAP practices.


GAP was designed as a culturally sensitive option for children for whom adoption and reunification with parents are not appropriate, and it is a critical tool in your efforts to address racial inequities and help more children exit foster care into a permanent family. 


For questions about the GAP convenings please contact

Meeting Materials

June 9  GAP Convening    


June 9 GAP convening kin partner slides

June 9 GAP convening state slides 

June 23 GAP Convening 


June 23 GAP convening kin partner slides

June 23 GAP convening state slides

June 29 GAP Convening 


June 29 GAP convening all slides


Summary of Findings Themes, Promising Practices, and Recommendations from 2021 GAP Convenings  


Partners and Participants


2021 GAP Convening Participant List





General GAP resources Guardianship Assistance Page

Guardianship Assistance Program (GAP): Barriers and Key Considerations

Making it Work

Kinship Guardianship Brief

GAP checklist

Family First Prevention Services Act and GAP

Generations United Racial Equity Toolkits

National Comparison Chart:  Adoption and Guardianship for Children in Kinship Foster Care

The Title IV-E Guardianship Assistance Program (GAP): An Update on Implementation and Moving GAP Forward - Follow up to the Making it Work Report (2015)


Federal resources


ACYF-CB-IM-20-08 – Information Memorandum on the Use of Title IV-E Programmatic Options to Improve Support to Relative Caregivers and the Children in Their Care


Child Welfare and Aging Programs: HHS Could Enhance Support for Grandparents and Other Relative Caregivers - report, fast facts,highlights,and recommendations from the Government Accountability Office. 


State GAP resources


Florida Department of Children and Families

Indiana Department of Child Services

Hawaii Department of Human Services, Social Services Division, Child Welfare Services Branch

New York Office of Children and Families 

North Carolina  Department of Health and Human Services

Oregon Department of Human Services

Tennessee Department of Children Services

Vermont Department for Children and Families

Virginia Department of Social Services

West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Children and Families, Office of Children and Adult Services

Wyoming Department of Family Services



We will continue updating this list as we receive more questions. Please send your outstanding questions to


Questions & Answers


Do I need to formally rule out reunification and adoption in a case before moving forward with GAP?


No. The law itself does not require that reunification and adoption be "ruled out" but rather that the state agency documents its efforts to diligently explore the permanency options of reunification and adoption and make a determination that they are not in the best interests of the child.


Do siblings need to enter guardianship together at the same time in order to qualify for Title IV-E GAP?


No. Federal law does not place any requirements that children be placed together into guardianship at the same time. Some states have placed additional restrictions regarding sibling eligibility for GAP that go beyond what is required in federal law.


Are children in adoptive or guardianship placements eligible for the Title IV-E prevention services and programs under Family First?


Yes. Family First specifically states that a “child who is a candidate for foster care… includes a child whose adoption or guardianship arrangement is at risk of a disruption or dissolution that would result in a foster care placement.” The problems threatening the adoption or guardianship arrangement might also be related to mental health or substance abuse, so the preventive services would be especially relevant.


Would receiving Title IV-E prevention services and programs under Family First affect the adoption or guardianship assistance a child is receiving?


No. Receipt of Title IV-E prevention services and programs does not require or permit a State or Tribe to reduce adoption or guardianship assistance payments or medical or other assistance available to a recipient.


Is there an age restriction for Title IV-E GAP eligibility?


No. There is no age restriction in federal law for Title IV-E GAP eligibility. Some states have passed laws limiting GAP to children over a certain age, but this is not a federal requirement.

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